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Unraveling Neoliberalism and Democracy: Perspectives from Experts

Updated: Jan 12





Unraveling Neoliberalism and Democracy: Perspectives from Experts


11 January 2024


In recent discussions surrounding the future of capitalism, experts have provided valuable insights into the moral dimensions of economic systems. Jan Peter Balkenende, an emeritus professor and former Prime Minister of the Netherlands, identifies climate issues, resource concerns, and inequality as pivotal challenges requiring a reevaluation of capitalism. Similarly, Pope John Paul II (1999) critiques neoliberalism, highlighting its negative impact on human dignity and social justice. The renowned French economist Thomas Piketty offers a historical perspective on the shift from pre-modern societies to modern capitalism, shedding light on the ideological transformation surrounding inequality. The World Economic Forum (WEF) also calls for a “Great Reset” in response to the COVID-19 pandemic, proposing a comprehensive transformation of global economic and social systems. Despite these diverse perspectives, skepticism exists, raising questions about the trustworthiness of influential organizations like the WEF.


Jan Peter Balkenende emphasizes that capitalism, as an economic organization, cannot be divorced from its moral context. He identifies climate issues, resource concerns, and inequality as pressing challenges that demand a reconsideration of capitalism. Balkenende proposes three central elements for the future of capitalism: a focus on long-term thinking, a shift from shareholder-centric to stakeholder-centric models, and a balanced consideration of ecological, economic, and social interests (De toekomst van kapitalisme in Europa, 2023).


Pope John Paul II criticizes neoliberalism, labeling it as a prevailing system that prioritizes profit and market laws at the expense of human dignity and respect. He points out various aspects of neoliberalism, such as the unchallenged authority of the market, the promotion of low wages, privatization, and negative impacts on small businesses. The critique extends to the social consequences of neoliberalism, including the widening CEO-worker salary gaps, emphasis on individual responsibility, and promotion of materialism over solidarity. (Zwick & Zwick, 1999)


Thomas Piketty, in is book in 2013, traces the historical evolution of societies from ternary orders to modern capitalist structures. He notes the shift from a balanced power distribution among warrior and clerical classes to societies of owners emphasizing property rights. The 1980s marked a turning point with the rise of neoliberal policies championed by Ronald Reagan and Margareth Thatcher. Piketty argues that this neoliberal approach, emphasizing rising inequality, ultimately failed to deliver sustained economic growth. (Piketty, 2019)


The World Economic Forum proposes a “Great Reset” in 2019 in response to the COVID-19 pandemic, advocating for a comprehensive transformation of global economic and social systems. The three-pronged approach involves steering the market towards fairer outcomes, aligning investments with shared goals, and harnessing innovations from the Fourth Industrial Revolution for the public good. Despite these proposals, skepticism exists regarding the trustworthiness of the WEF, possibly due to concerns about its influence and representation. (Haskin, 2020)


The diverse perspectives of Balkenende, Pope John Paul II, Piketty, and the World Economic Forum offer a nuanced understanding of capitalism’s challenges and potential transformations. While each expert brings unique insights, skepticism surrounding influential organizations like the WEF suggests a need for transparent and inclusive dialogue. As discussions on the future of capitalism continue, incorporating diverse viewpoints and addressing concerns about representation and trust is crucial for shaping equitable and sustainable economic systems.




De toekomst van kapitalisme in Europa. (2023, maart 3). Retrieved from

Haskin, J. (2020, June 25). Introducing the ‘Great Reset,’ world leaders’ radical plan to transform the economy. Retrieved from

Piketty, T. (2019). Thomas Piketty on the origin of inequality; We need to move beyond private property. Retrieved from

Zwick, M., & Zwick, L. (1999, April 1). Pope John Paul II condemns neoliberalism in Ecclesia in America, as social sin that cries to heaven. Retrieved from





 Miguel Goede

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