Populism in Curaçao is a correction to the liberalism that sometimes become isolated from public opinion and the views of the common people. But it is also a consequence of the debate on decolonization. In Curaçao the conditions for populism to develop are present. The elites are under heavy pressure. The majority is poor and institutions are heavily criticized. The media in Curaçao are pervasive and invasive. Populism is growing. But the practical answers that populists provide appear to perpetuate the weaknesses of the original system, or reinforce them, while only the occupants of various positions change. This appears to be a feature of populism all over the world.
Populism in Curaçao includes a powerful combination of a number of generic and local factors, namely the inclination to conspiracy theories, a preference for direct democracy, anti-colonialism, ethnicity, socialism, religion, patronage and nepotism.
Further research could focus on comparing several case studies (comparative crucial case studies) and further develop the theories of populism. One interesting comparable case would be that of Surinam. Surinam shares much of its history with Curaçao. Both were colonies of the Netherlands and Surinam is now an independent republic, having obtained its independence from the Netherlands in 1975. Surinam and Curacao are former partners within the Kingdom of the Netherlands. So there are also important differences; Surinam is in South America. However, from the point of view of political organization, the comparison may be instructive, because Surinam is currently governed by a populist president, elected in 2010.
Allahar, A. (ed.) (2001), Caribbean Charisma: Reflections on Leadership,Legitimacy and Populist Politics , Kingston:LynneRienner Pub. Birdsall, N, N. Lustig, and D. McLeod, (2011), Declining Inequalityin Latin America: Some Economics,Some Politics, Center for Global Development, Working Paper May 2011.
Branche, J. (ed.) (2008), Race,Colonialism, and Social Transformation in Latin America and the Caribbean, University of Pittsburgh.
Castells, M. (2009), Communication power, Oxford/New York: Oxford University Press.
Curiel, G. (2005), “Sustainabledevelopment; A development path for Curaçao”, in “Een aanzet tot integraleontwikkeling; Bezien vanuit het Caribische deel van het Koninkrijk”. Curaçao:University of the Netherlands Antilles.
Crick, B. (2005), Democratization, Dec 2005, Vol. 12 Issue 5,p625-632, 8p.
Deiwiks, C. (2009), Living Reviews in Democracy,2009, Vol. 1, p1-9, 9p.
Doyle, D. , (2011),“The Legitimacy of Political Institutions: Explaining Contemporary Populism inLatin America”, ComparativePolitical Studies, November 2011, vol. 44 No. 11, pp. 1447 -1473.
Economist, (2006), “The return ofpopulism, A much-touted move to the left masks something more complex: therebirth of influential Latin American political tradition”, Economist, 12 April2006.
Frissen, P. (2009), Gevaar verplicht; Over de noodzaak vanaristocartische politiek, vangennep, Amsterdam.
Frissen, P. (2010) Personalcommunication
Gibbes, F., Römer-Kenepa, N.,Scriwanek, M. (1999), De bewoners vanCuraçao, vijf eeuwen lief en leed, 1499 – 1999, Nationaal Archief,Willemstad, Curaçao.
Goede,M. (1999), Leiderschap in Curaçao, Arthur Andersen, Curaçao.
Goede, M. (2004),Leiderschap in Curaçao, VBNA, Curaçao.
Goede, M.(2006), “Media en democatie”, UNA 2006Publicaties, Publications, Publikashon, University of the NetherlandsAntilles, The Netherlands Antilles.
Goede, M. (2008). “Globalization ofsmall islands: The case of Curacao”. International Journal of SocialEconomics 35 (5): 344-363.
Madrid, R. (2008), “The Rise of Ethnopopulism in Latin America” World Politics, Vol60, No 3, April 2008, pp. 475-508
Millett,J. (2003 ). “Decolonization, populit movements and the formation of newnations”, in: Brereton, B. ed. GeneralHistory of the Caribbean vol. 5, The TwentiethCentury. Paris: UNESCO, 2003.
Weber, M. (1922),. Theoryof Social and Economic Organization. Chapter: "The Nature of CharismaticAuthority and its Routinization" translated by A. R. Anderson and TalcottParsons, 1947. Originally published in 1922 in German under the title Wirtschaft und Gesellschaftchapter III, § 10
Ramirez, L. (2009), A new perspective onBolivian populism, A thisis presented to the Department of Political Scienceand Graduate School of the University of Oregon in Partial fulfillment of therequirements for the degree of Master of Art, June 2009.
Wit, J. (2011), Dedemocratische rechtsstaat Curaçao: kan het beter?, Curaçao, 4 juli 2011.
Vierbergen, F, (2004) Armoede-indicatoren voor de Nederlandse Antillen, in: Modus Statistisch Magazine, jaargang 5 nr. 3, september 2004.
Vossen, K, Perspectives on European Politics & Society, Apr 2010, Vol. 11 Issue 1, p22-38, p.17